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The Montreal Moment for Biodiversity: Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework adopted


Final COP15 Decision Plenary at Montreal

The  Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework, due to the pandemic, has been four years in the making, was finally adopted in Montreal in the early hours of the morning on the 19th December 2022. 

This is the ‘Montreal moment’ for the Biodiversity crisis and the Convention on Biological Diversity, the equivalent of the ‘Paris moment‘ for the UNFCCC and the climate crisis. 

Like the Paris Agreement, it is far from being perfect. The consensus process means that much compromise is entailed in reaching a global agreement. 

It sets mission goals for 2030 and 2050 to arrest loss of ecosystems and conserve species numbers. It includes an ambitious 30 per cent of land and 30 per cent of ocean for conservation by 2030. This is a step in the right direction, although recent science says that between 44 per cent (1) or 50 percent of land (2) may be necessary to protect to meet the mission statement.

The Package also includes reform of $500bn (£410bn) of environmentally damaging subsidies, and halt pollution that damages ecosystems by the end of the decade. Countries from the global north would contribute $30bn a year for conservation by the end of the decade. 

Strong language for the protection of indigenous rights and territories emphasised throughout the 23 specific targets and four goals that make up the main agreement, known as the post-2020 global biodiversity framework. 

While a separate Biodiversity Fund was not agreed, there was a compromise plan to create a new financing mechanism for biodiversity housed under the UN’s Global Environment Facility (GEF).

While the Global Biodiversity Framework is the central piece, it was passed along with several other important documents to make the deal, the package.

Documents adopted as a package include:

  • CBD/COP/15/L25 – Kunming-Montreal Global biodiversity framework
  • CBD/COP/15/L26 – Monitoring framework for the Kunming-Montreal global biodiversity framework
  • CBD/COP/15/L27 – Mechanisms for planning, monitoring, reporting and review
  • CBD/COP/15/L28 – Capacity-building and development and technical and scientific cooperation
  • CBD/COP/15/L29 – Resource mobilization
  • CBD/COP/15/L30 – Digital sequence information on genetic resources

Other subsidiary documents will also be considered for adoption during the plenary later on the 19th December.

The decision “Urges Parties and other Governments, with the support of intergovernmental and other organizations, as appropriate, to implement the Kunming-Montreal global biodiversity framework, and, in particular, to enable participation at all levels of government, with a view to fostering the full and effective contributions of women, youth, indigenous peoples and local communities, civil society organizations, the private and financial sectors, and stakeholders from all other sectors, to that end;”

“Invites Parties and other Governments to cooperate at the transboundary, regional and international levels in implementing the Kunming-Montreal global biodiversity framework;”

As Australia has supported this Framework being adopted, signing and ratification should only be a matter of process. The Framework agreement as an international treaty will apply also to the State level and local government for implementation, where relevant. 

Australia made three significant pledges during the Conference:

  • December 18: Nature Positive Summit hosted by Australia in 2024, a global meeting of the world’s environment ministers and business leaders. 
  • December 15: US-Australia Pact to measure nature’s economic value. 
  • December 12: Australia a foundation member of The Sustainable Critical Minerals Alliance launched on the sidelines of the Conference, with US, Canada, UK, France, & Germany. 

Responses to the Global Biodiversity Framework agreement:

The Nature Conservancy: Media Statement: UN Biodiversity Conference CBD-COP15 scores historic goal for nature 

WWF: Global deal to reverse nature loss by 2030 agreed, but immediate action and funds needed to deliver

According to The Energy Mix report:

Eddy Pérez of Climate Action Network-Canada described the accord as an “ambitious” one that puts pressure on developed nations when it comes to finance. But Perez said the language on pesticides is weak and reiterated concerns over the lack of measurable goals on reducing extinctions by 2030.

Brian O’Donnell, director of Campaign for Nature was worried about language on “sustainable use” in protected areas and called for more clarification on the commitment to oceans.

Virginijus Sinkevičius, environment commissioner at the European Commission, said the text represented a “compromise” and a “solid document on which we can work.” But he said the agreement needed to be strengthened, noting there were no numerical targets on a key goal that includes halting human-induced species extinctions by 2050 and increasing the abundance of native wild species.

Jutta Paulus, a Greens MP in the European Parliament, highlighted in a Mastodon thread that the agreement is an historic step forward while also highlighting a number of deficiencies including:

  • definition of “sustainable” use missing; 
  • no mechanisms for implementation agreed upon; No separate category for indigenous peoples’ territories; 
  • No definition of “degraded” or “effective restoration” – risk of watering down + carryover looms; 
  • 50% of excess nitrogen (!!) to be reduced; 
  • No clear responsibility to fight plastic waste; 
  • no financing via “polluter pays; 
  • no instruments, no monitoring ; 
  • very weak criteria; 
  • Nothing learned from Aichi! Improvements must be made here!

ACF CEO Kelly O’Shanassy, who was at the conference, said  in a media release that Australia showed leadership in the negotiating room and commended Environment Minister Tanya Plibersek for pushing to end extinction, starting now. This wasn’t enough to convince other countries which opted for a 2050 deadline to end extinction of known threatened species.

“Many of the world’s threatened species, including in Australia’s, are on a pathway to go extinct well before 2050,” Ms O’Shanassy said.

“It is not acceptable for a framework on biodiversity to allow for extinctions to continue for another 28 years. Australia has a goal of no new extinctions – that’s a goal the world should have supported.

“Protection of 30% of land and oceans and restoration of 30% of degraded ecosystems, both by 2030, are good targets and will begin to repair humanity’s relationship with nature.

“The mission for 2030 – to ’take urgent action to halt and reverse biodiversity loss and put nature on a path to recovery’ – is a mission statement for the world.

“It will be important for Australia’s leadership at Montreal to continue at home to turn these commitments into reality,” she said.

ACF Nature and Business campaigner Nathaniel Pelle identified there was a substantial presence of the  business and finance sector at the conference, showing interest in nature solutions. 

“The agreement means big companies, banks and investors will have to publicly disclose the damage they do to nature and be accountable for setting targets to reverse nature damage.

“Nations also agreed to reduce and ultimately eliminate harmful subsidies which will end public money going to businesses to damage nature.”

While this interest appears positive from business, the commodification of nature also poses risks and dangers as highlighted in recent  articles by The Australia Institute’s Polly Hemming (Why a biodiversity environment market doesn’t work, 10 Dec 2022, The Saturday Paper) and Jeff Sparrow (The call to put ‘a price on nature’ can be appealing – but it misunderstands what’s at stake, 16 Dec 2022 The Guadian)

Target 7 addressed nitrogen fertilisers and pesticide use. It set a goal of  reducing excess nutrients lost to the environment by at least 50 per cent; and reducing the overall risk from pesticides and highly hazardous chemicals by at least 50 per cent including through integrated pest management, taking into account food security and livelihoods. The target also sets a goal to preventing, reducing, and working towards eliminating plastic pollution, but no target set for reducing plastics pollution. That might need to come from the Global Plastics Treaty being negotiated.

Environment Minister Tanya Plibersek said in a media release from Montreal:

“We secured high ambition on restoring degraded land, inland water, and coastal and marine ecosystems. We agreed a good target on reducing invasive species, recognising island sites, including in the Pacific, as a priority. We successfully advocated for placing the rights and interests of First Nations peoples at the forefront of nature conservation. And large companies will be required to disclose their nature related risks and impacts. 

“Australia led the way in the negotiations, pushing for an ambitious agreement. We can be proud. We didn’t get everything we wanted. Others didn’t either. But with a bit of cooperation, compromise and common sense, we have achieved a lot for the world.”

Sarah Hanson-Young, Greens Senator and Environment Spokesperson who was also in Montreal, highlighted the watering down of the text in its final stages, and while supported Australian government ambition on targets, also expressed her disappointment that the Australian government put no money on the table at the negotiations for biodivsersity, unlike several other developed nations. 

She also highlighted the problems with greenwashing and commodification of nature. She highlighted the inconsistency in Australia….especially around the continuation of native logging destruction of forest ecosystems and their species…

“We need to change business as usual, Business as Usual is pushing us down a path where by 2050 we will lose the koala. By 2030 many other species will be gone or facing extinction. We need to put a holt to extinction now. To stop destroying criticial habitats. In Australia that would mean putting an end to native logging. It is absolutely crazy that at the same time as world leaders are talking about plans to restore nature, to be planting more trees, back home in Australia we have governments that are allowing the destruction of native forests. Whether Victoria, New South Wales, or in Tasmania where they are logging and mining the Tarkine.”

(Montreal talks lead to ‘watered down’ biodiversity targets: Greens Audio interview RN Breakfast, 19 Dec 2022)

Read several Australian academics review the Global Biodiversity Framework: The historic COP15 outcome is an imperfect game-changer for saving nature. Here’s why Australia did us proud (The Conversation, 20 December, 2022)

What follows is the full annex from  CBD/COP/15/L25 Kunming-Montreal Global biodiversity framework document from the CBD COP15 documents website.

Annex – Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework

Section A.  Background

    1. Biodiversity is fundamental to human well-being and a healthy planet, and economic prosperity for all people. including for living well in balance and in harmony with Mother Earth, we depend on it for food, medicine, energy, clean air and water, security from natural disasters as well as recreation and cultural inspiration, and it supports all systems of life on earth. 

    2. The global biodiversity framework seeks to respond to the Global Assessment Report of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services issued by the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) in 2019,(3) fifth edition of the Global Biodiversity Outlook, and many other scientific documents provide ample evidence that, despite ongoing efforts, biodiversity is deteriorating worldwide at rates unprecedented in human history. As the IPBES Global Assessment report states:

An average of around 25 per cent of species in assessed animal and plant groups are threatened, suggesting that around 1 million species already face extinction, many within decades, unless action is taken to reduce the intensity of drivers of biodiversity loss. Without such action, there will be a further acceleration in the global rate of species extinction, which is already at least tens to hundreds of times higher than it has averaged over the past 10 million years.(4)

The biosphere, upon which humanity as a whole depends, is being altered to an unparalleled degree across all spatial scales. Biodiversity – the diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems – is declining faster than at any time in human history. (5)

Nature can be conserved, restored and used sustainably while other global societal goals are simultaneously met through urgent and concerted efforts fostering transformative change.

The direct drivers of change in nature with the largest global impact have been (starting with those with the most impact) changes in land and sea use, direct exploitation of organisms, climate change, pollution and invasion of alien species. Those five direct drivers result from an array of underlying causes, the indirect drivers of change, which are, in turn, underpinned by social values and behaviours (…)The rate of change in the direct and indirect drivers differs among regions and countries.(6)

3. The Kunming-Montreal global biodiversity framework, building on the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011‑2020, its achievements, gaps, and lessons learned, and the experience and achievements of other relevant multilateral environmental agreements, sets out an ambitious plan to implement broad-based action to bring about a transformation in our societies’ relationship with biodiversity by 2030, in line with the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its Sustainable Development Goals, and ensure that, by 2050, the shared vision of living in harmony with nature is fulfilled.

Section B. Purpose

4. The framework aims to catalyze, enable and galvanize urgent and transformative action by Governments, subnational and local governments, and with the involvement of all of society to halt and reverse biodiversity loss, to achieve the outcomes it sets out in its vision, mission, goals and targets, and thereby to contribute to the three objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity, and to its Protocols. The purpose is the full implementation of the three objectives of the Convention in a balanced manner.

5. The framework is action- and results-oriented, and aims to guide and promote at all levels the revision, development, updating, and implementation of policies, goals, targets, national biodiversity strategies and actions plans, and to facilitate monitoring and review of progress at all levels, in a more transparent and responsible manner.

6. The framework promotes coherence, complementarity and cooperation between the Convention on Biological Diversity and its Protocols, other biodiversity related conventions, other relevant multilateral agreements and international institutions, respecting their mandates, and creates opportunities for cooperation and partnerships among the diverse actors to enhance implementation of the framework.

Section C. Considerations for the implementation of the framework

7. The framework, including its Vision, Mission, Goals and Targets, is to be understood, acted upon, implemented, reported and evaluated, consistent with the following:

Contribution and rights of indigenous peoples and local communities 

8. The framework acknowledges the important roles and contributions of indigenous peoples and local communities as custodians of biodiversity and partners in the conservation, restoration and sustainable use. Its implementation must ensure their  rights, knowledge, including traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity, innovations, worldviews, values and practices of indigenous peoples and local communities are respected, documented, preserved  with their free, prior and informed consent,(7) including through their full and effective participation in decision-making, in accordance with relevant national legislation, international instruments, including the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, and human rights law. In this regard, nothing in this framework may be construed as diminishing or extinguishing the rights that indigenous peoples currently have or may acquire in the future.

Different value systems

9. Nature embodies different concepts for different people, including biodiversity, ecosystems, Mother Earth, and systems of life. Nature’s contributions to people also embody different concepts, such as ecosystem goods and services and nature’s gifts. Both nature and nature’s contributions to people are vital for human existence and good quality of life, including human well-being, living in harmony with nature, living well in balance and harmony with Mother Earth. The framework recognizes and considers these diverse value systems and concepts, including, for those countries that recognize them, rights of nature and rights of Mother Earth, as being an integral part of its successful implementation. 

Whole-of-government and whole-of-society approach

10. This is a framework for all – for the whole of government and the whole of society. Its success requires political will and recognition at the highest level of government, and relies on action and cooperation by all levels of government and by all actors of society.

National circumstances, priorities and capabilities

11. The goals and targets of the framework are global in nature. Each Party would contribute to attaining the goals and targets, of the global biodiversity framework in accordance with national circumstances, priorities and capabilities. 

Collective effort towards the targets

12. The Parties will catalyse implementation of the framework through mobilization of broad public support at all levels. 

Right to development

13. Recognizing the 1986 United Nations Declaration on the Right to Development, the framework enables responsible and sustainable socioeconomic development that, at the same time, contributes to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity.

Human rights-based approach

14. The implementation of the framework should follow a human rights-based approach respecting, protecting, promoting and fulfilling human rights. The framework acknowledges the human right to a clean, healthy and sustainable environment(8). 

Gender

15. Successful implementation of the framework will depend on ensuring gender equality and empowerment of women and girls and reducing inequalities. 

Fulfilment of the three objectives of the Convention and its Protocols and their balanced implementation

16. The goals and targets of the framework are integrated and are intended to contribute in a balanced manner to the three objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity. The framework is to be implemented in accordance with these objectives, with provisions of the Convention on Biological Diversity, and with the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety and the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit-sharing, as applicable.

Consistency with international agreements or instruments

17. The global biodiversity framework needs to be implemented in accordance with relevant international obligations. Nothing in this framework should be interpreted as agreement to modify the rights and obligations of a Party under the Convention or any other international agreement.

Principles of the Rio Declaration

18. The framework recognizes that reversing the loss of biological diversity, for the benefit of all living beings, is a common concern of humankind. Its implementation should be guided by the principles of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development.9

Science and innovation

19. The implementation of the framework should be based on scientific evidence and traditional knowledge and practices, recognizing the role of science, technology and innovation.

Ecosystem approach 

20. This framework is to be implemented based on the ecosystem approach of the Convention.(10)

Inter-generational equity

21. The implementation of the framework should be guided by the principle of intergenerational equity which aims to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs and to ensure meaningful participation of younger generations in decision making processes at all levels.

Formal and informal education

22. Implementation of the framework requires transformative, innovative and transdisciplinary education, formal and informal, at all levels, including science-policy interface studies and lifelong learning processes, recognizing diverse world views, values and knowledge systems of indigenous peoples and local communities.

Access to financial resources

23. The full implementation of the framework requires adequate, predictable and easily accessible financial resources.

Cooperation and synergies

24. Enhanced collaboration, cooperation and synergies between the Convention on Biological Diversity and its Protocols, other biodiversity-related conventions, other relevant multilateral agreements and international organizations and processes, in line with their respective mandates, including at the global, regional, subregional and national levels, would contribute to and promote the implementation of the global biodiversity framework in a more efficient and effective manner.

Biodiversity and health, 

25. The framework acknowledges the interlinkages between biodiversity and health and the three objectives of the Convention. The framework is to be implemented with consideration of the One Health Approach, among other holistic approaches that are based on science, mobilize multiple sectors, disciplines and communities to work together and aim to sustainably balance and optimize, the health of people, animals, plants and ecosystems, recognizing the need for equitable access to tools and technologies including medicines, vaccines and other health products related to biodiversity, while highlighting the urgent need to reduce pressures on biodiversity and decrease environmental degradation to reduce risks to health, and, as appropriate, develop practical access and benefit-sharing arrangements. 

Section D. Relationship with the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development

26. The framework is a contribution to the achievement of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. At the same time, progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals and the achievement of sustainable development in all its three dimensions (environmental, social and economic) is necessary to create the conditions necessary to fulfil the goals and targets of the framework. It will place biodiversity, its conservation, the sustainable use of its components and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources, at the heart of the sustainable development agenda, recognizing the important linkages between biological and cultural diversity.

Section E. Theory of change

27. The framework is built around a theory of change which recognizes that urgent policy action is required globally, regionally and nationally to achieve sustainable development so that the drivers of undesirable change that have exacerbated biodiversity loss will be reduced and/or reversed to allow for the recovery of all ecosystems and to achieve the Convention’s vision of Living in Harmony with Nature by 2050.

Section F. 2050 Vision and 2030 mission

28. The vision of the framework is a world of living in harmony with nature where: “By 2050, biodiversity is valued, conserved, restored and wisely used, maintaining ecosystem services, sustaining a healthy planet and delivering benefits essential for all people.” 

29. The mission of the framework for the period up to 2030, towards the 2050 vision is: 

To take urgent action to halt and reverse biodiversity loss to put nature on a path to recovery for the benefit of people and planet by conserving and sustainably using biodiversity, and ensuring the fair and equitable sharing of benefits from the use of genetic resources, while providing the necessary means of implementation.

Section G. Kunming-Montreal Global Goals for 2050

30. The framework has four long-term goals for 2050 related to the 2050 Vision for Biodiversity.

GOAL A

The integrity, connectivity and resilience of all ecosystems are maintained, enhanced, or restored, substantially increasing the area of natural ecosystems by 2050;

Human induced extinction of known threatened species is halted, and, by 2050, extinction rate and risk of all species are reduced tenfold and the abundance of native wild species is increased to healthy and resilient levels;

The genetic diversity within populations of wild and domesticated species, is maintained, safeguarding their adaptive potential.

GOAL B

Biodiversity is sustainably used and managed and nature’s contributions to people, including ecosystem functions and services, are valued, maintained and enhanced, with those currently in decline being restored, supporting the achievement of sustainable development for the benefit of present and future generations by 2050.

GOAL C

The monetary and non-monetary benefits from the utilization of genetic resources, and digital sequence information on genetic resources, and of traditional knowledge associated with genetic resources, as applicable, are shared fairly and equitably, including, as appropriate with indigenous peoples and local communities, and substantially increased by 2050, while ensuring traditional knowledge associated with genetic resources is appropriately protected, thereby contributing to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, in accordance with internationally agreed access and benefit-sharing instruments.

GOAL D

Adequate means of implementation, including financial resources, capacity-building, technical and scientific cooperation,  and access to and transfer of technology  to fully implement the Kunming-Montreal global biodiversity framework  are secured and equitably accessible to all Parties, especially developing countries,  in particular the least developed countries and small island developing States, as well as countries with economies in transition, progressively closing the biodiversity finance gap of 700 billion dollars per year, and aligning financial flows with the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework and the 2050 Vision for Biodiversity.

Section H.  Kunming-Montreal 2030 Global Targets

31. The framework has 23 action-oriented global targets for urgent action over the decade to 2030. The actions set out in each target need to be initiated immediately and completed by 2030. Together, the results will enable achievement towards the outcome-oriented goals for 2050. Actions to reach these targets should be implemented consistently and in harmony with the Convention on Biological Diversity and its Protocols and other relevant international obligations, taking into account national circumstances, priorities and socioeconomic conditions.

1. Reducing threats to biodiversity

TARGET 1

Ensure that all areas are under participatory integrated biodiversity inclusive spatial planning and/or effective management processes addressing land and sea use change, to bring the loss of areas of high biodiversity importance, including ecosystems of high ecological integrity, close to zero by 2030, while respecting the rights of indigenous peoples and local communities,

TARGET 2

Ensure that by 2030 at least 30 per cent of areas of degraded terrestrial, inland water, and coastal and marine ecosystems are under effective restoration, in order to enhance biodiversity and ecosystem functions and services, ecological integrity and connectivity.

TARGET 3

Ensure and enable that by 2030 at least 30 per cent of terrestrial, inland water, and of coastal and marine areas, especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem functions and services, are effectively conserved and managed through ecologically representative, well-connected and equitably governed systems of protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures, recognizing indigenous and traditional territories, where applicable, and integrated into wider landscapes, seascapes and the ocean, while ensuring that any sustainable use, where appropriate in such areas, is fully consistent with conservation outcomes, recognizing and respecting the rights of indigenous peoples and local communities, including over their traditional territories.

TARGET 4

Ensure urgent management actions to halt human induced extinction of known threatened species and for the recovery and conservation of species, in particular threatened species, to significantly reduce extinction risk, as well as to maintain and restore the genetic diversity within and between populations of native, wild and domesticated species to maintain their adaptive potential, including through in situ and ex situ conservation and sustainable management practices, and effectively manage human-wildlife interactions to minimize human-wildlife conflict for coexistence.

TARGET 5

Ensure that the use, harvesting and trade of wild species is sustainable, safe and legal, preventing overexploitation, minimizing impacts on non-target species and ecosystems, and reducing the risk of pathogen spill-over, applying the ecosystem approach, while respecting and protecting customary sustainable use by indigenous peoples and local communities.

TARGET 6

Eliminate, minimize, reduce and or mitigate the impacts of invasive alien species on biodiversity and ecosystem services by identifying and managing pathways of the introduction of alien species, preventing the introduction and establishment of priority invasive alien species, reducing the rates of introduction and establishment of other known or potential invasive alien species by at least 50 per cent, by 2030, eradicating or controlling invasive alien species especially in priority sites, such as islands. 

TARGET 7

Reduce pollution risks and the negative impact of pollution from all sources, by 2030, to levels that are not harmful to biodiversity and ecosystem functions and services, considering cumulative effects, including: reducing excess nutrients lost to the environment by at least half including through more efficient nutrient cycling and use; reducing the overall risk from pesticides and highly hazardous chemicals by at least half including through integrated pest management, based on science, taking into account food security and livelihoods; and also preventing, reducing, and working towards eliminating plastic pollution.

TARGET 8 

Minimize the impact of climate change and ocean acidification on biodiversity and increase its resilience through mitigation, adaptation, and disaster risk reduction actions, including through nature-based solution and/or ecosystem-based approaches, while minimizing negative and fostering positive impacts of climate action on biodiversity. 

2. Meeting people’s needs through sustainable use and benefit-sharing

TARGET 9

Ensure that the management and use of wild species are sustainable, thereby providing social, economic and environmental benefits for people, especially those in vulnerable situations and those most dependent on biodiversity, including through sustainable biodiversity-based activities, products and services that enhance biodiversity, and protecting and encouraging customary sustainable use by indigenous peoples and local communities.

TARGET 10

Ensure that areas under agriculture, aquaculture, fisheries and forestry are managed sustainably, in particular through the sustainable use of biodiversity, including through a substantial increase of the application of biodiversity friendly practices, such as sustainable intensification, agroecological and other innovative approaches contributing to the resilience and long-term efficiency and productivity of these production systems and to food security, conserving and restoring biodiversity and maintaining nature’s contributions to people, including ecosystem functions and services .

TARGET 11

Restore, maintain and enhance nature’s contributions to people, including ecosystem functions and services, such as regulation of air, water, and climate, soil health, pollination and reduction of disease risk, as well as protection from natural hazards and disasters, through nature-based solutions and/or ecosystem-based approaches for the benefit of all people and nature. 

TARGET 12  

Significantly increase the area and quality and connectivity of, access to, and benefits from green and blue spaces in urban and densely populated areas sustainably, by mainstreaming the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, and ensure biodiversity-inclusive urban planning, enhancing native biodiversity, ecological connectivity and integrity, and improving human health and well-being and connection to nature and contributing to inclusive and sustainable urbanization and the provision of ecosystem functions and services.

TARGET 13

Take effective legal, policy, administrative and capacity-building measures at all levels, as appropriate, to ensure the fair and equitable sharing of benefits that arise from the utilization of genetic resources and from digital sequence information on genetic resources, as well as traditional knowledge associated with genetic resources, and facilitating appropriate access to genetic resources, and by 2030 facilitating a significant increase of the benefits shared, in accordance with applicable international access and benefit-sharing instruments.

3. Tools and solutions for implementation and mainstreaming

TARGET 14

Ensure the full integration of biodiversity and its multiple values into policies, regulations, planning and development processes, poverty eradication strategies, strategic environmental assessments, environmental impact assessments and, as appropriate, national accounting, within and across all levels of government and across all sectors, in particular those with significant impacts on biodiversity, progressively aligning all relevant public and private activities, fiscal and financial flows with the goals and targets of this framework.

TARGET 15

Take legal, administrative or policy measures to encourage and enable business, and in particular to ensure that large and transnational companies and financial institutions:

    (a)  Regularly monitor, assess, and transparently disclose their risks, dependencies and impacts on biodiversity, including with requirements for all large as well as transnational companies and financial institutions along their operations, supply and value chains and portfolios;

    (b) Provide information needed to consumers to promote sustainable consumption patterns;

    (c) Report on compliance with access and benefit-sharing regulations and measures, as applicable;

in order to progressively reduce negative impacts on biodiversity, increase positive impacts, reduce biodiversity-related risks to business and financial institutions, and promote actions to ensure sustainable patterns of production.

TARGET 16

Ensure that people are encouraged and enabled to make sustainable consumption choices including by establishing supportive policy, legislative or regulatory frameworks, improving education and access to relevant and accurate information and alternatives, and by 2030, reduce the global footprint of consumption in an equitable manner, including through halving global food waste, significantly reducing overconsumption and substantially reducing waste generation, in order for all people to live well in harmony with Mother Earth.

TARGET 17

Establish, strengthen capacity for, and implement in all countries in biosafety measures as set out in Article 8(g) of the Convention on Biological Diversity and measures for the handling of biotechnology and distribution of its benefits as set out in Article 19 of the Convention.

TARGET 18

Identify by 2025, and eliminate, phase out or reform incentives, including subsidies, harmful for biodiversity, in a proportionate, just, fair, effective and equitable way, while substantially and progressively reducing them by at least 500 billion United States dollars per year by 2030, starting with the most harmful incentives, and scale up positive incentives for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity.

TARGET 19

Substantially and progressively increase the level of financial resources from all sources, in an effective, timely and easily accessible manner, including domestic, international, public and private resources, in accordance with Article 20 of the Convention, to implement national biodiversity strategies and action plans, by 2030 mobilizing at least 200 billion United States dollars per year, including by: 

(a) Increasing total biodiversity related international financial resources from developed countries, including official development assistance, and from countries that voluntarily assume obligations of developed country Parties, to developing countries, in particular the least developed countries and small island developing States, as well as countries with economies in transition, to at least US$ 20 billion per year by 2025, and to at least US$ 30 billion per year by 2030;

(b) Significantly increasing domestic resource mobilization, facilitated by the preparation and implementation of national biodiversity finance plans or similar instruments according to national needs, priorities and circumstances;

(c) Leveraging private finance, promoting blended finance, implementing strategies for raising new and additional resources, and encouraging the private sector to invest in biodiversity, including through impact funds and other instruments;

(d) Stimulating innovative schemes such as payment for ecosystem services, green bonds, biodiversity offsets and credits, benefit-sharing mechanisms, with environmental and social safeguards

(e) Optimizing co-benefits and synergies of finance targeting the biodiversity and climate crises,   

(f) Enhancing the role of collective actions, including by indigenous peoples and local communities, Mother Earth centric actions9 and non-market-based approaches including community based natural resource management and civil society cooperation and solidarity aimed at the conservation of biodiversity

(g) Enhancing the effectiveness, efficiency and transparency of resource provision and use;

TARGET 20  

Strengthen capacity-building and development, access to and transfer of technology, and promote development of and access to innovation and technical and scientific cooperation, including through South-South, North-South and triangular cooperation, to meet the needs for effective implementation, particularly in developing countries, fostering joint technology development and joint scientific research programmes for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and strengthening scientific research and monitoring capacities, commensurate with the ambition of the goals and targets of the framework.

TARGET 21

Ensure that the best available data, information and knowledge, are accessible to decision makers, practitioners and the public to guide effective and equitable governance, integrated and participatory management of biodiversity, and to strengthen communication, awareness-raising, education, monitoring, research and knowledge management and, also in this context, traditional knowledge, innovations, practices and technologies of indigenous peoples and local communities should only be accessed with their free, prior and informed consent,10 in accordance with national legislation.

TARGET 22

Ensure the full, equitable, inclusive, effective and gender-responsive representation and participation in decision-making, and access to justice and information related to biodiversity by indigenous peoples and local communities, respecting their cultures and their rights over lands, territories, resources, and traditional knowledge, as well as by women and girls, children and youth, and persons with disabilities and ensure the full protection of environmental human rights defenders.

TARGET 23

Ensure gender equality in the implementation of the framework through a gender-responsive approach where all women and girls have equal opportunity and capacity to contribute to the three objectives of the Convention, including by recognizing their equal rights and access to land and natural resources and their full, equitable, meaningful and informed participation and leadership at all levels of action, engagement, policy and decision-making related to biodiversity.

Section I. Implementation and support mechanism and enabling conditions

32. Implementation of the framework and the achievement of its goals and targets will be facilitated and enhanced through support mechanisms and strategies under the Convention on Biological Diversity and its Protocols, in accordance with its provisions and decisions adopted at the fifteenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties.

33. The full implementation of the framework will require the provision of adequate, predictable and easily accessible financial resources from all sources on a needs basis. It further requires cooperation and collaboration in building the necessary capacity and transfer of technologies to allow parties, especially developing country Party to fully implement the framework.

Section J. Responsibility and transparency

34. The successful implementation of the framework requires responsibility and transparency, which will be supported by effective mechanisms for planning, monitoring, reporting and review forming an agreed(11) synchronized and cyclical system. This includes the following elements:

    (a) National biodiversity strategies and action plans, revised or updated in alignment with the Kunming-Montreal global biodiversity framework and its goals and targets as the main vehicle for implementation of the framework, including national targets communicated in a standardized format, 

    (b) National reports including the headline and as appropriate other indicators in the Kunming-Montreal global biodiversity framework monitoring framework.

    (c) Global analysis of information in NBSAPs including national targets to assess the contribution towards the Kunming-Montreal global biodiversity framework;

    (d) Global review of collective progress in the implementation of the Kunming-Montreal global biodiversity framework including the means of implementation, based on national reports and, as appropriate other sources; 

    (e) Voluntary peer reviews; 

    (f) Further development and testing of an open-ended forum for voluntary country reviews;

    (g) Information on non-state actor commitments towards the Kunming-Montreal global biodiversity framework, as applicable;

35. Parties may take the outcome of the global reviews into account in the future revisions and implementation of their NBSAPs, including the provision of means of implementation to developing country Parties, with a view to improve actions and efforts, as appropriate.

36. The mechanisms recognize the specific challenges faced by developing countries and the need for international cooperation to support them accordingly. Means of implementation, including capacity‑building and development, technical and financial support will be provided to Parties, especially to developing country Parties, to enable the implementation of these mechanisms for responsibility and transparency, including information on transparency of support provided and received and provide a full overview of aggregate support provided.

37. The mechanisms will be undertaken in a facilitative, non-intrusive, non-punitive manner, respecting national sovereignty, and avoiding placing undue burden on Parties. 

38. Further recommendations on the transparency and responsibility mechanisms will be provided by the Conference of the Parties as necessary with a view to achieving the goals and targets of the framework.

39. Future meetings of the Conference of the Parties will consider and provide any additional recommendation as necessary, including on the basis of the outcomes from the reviews, with a view to achieving the goals and targets of the Kunming-Montreal global biodiversity framework. 

Section K. Communication, education, awareness and uptake

40. Enhancing communication, education, and awareness on biodiversity and the uptake of this framework by all actors is essential to achieve its effective implementation and behavioural change, promote sustainable lifestyles and biodiversity values, including by:

(a) Increasing awareness, understanding and appreciation of the knowledge systems, diverse values of biodiversity and nature’s contributions to people, including ecosystems functions and services and traditional knowledge and worldviews of indigenous peoples and local communities as well as of biodiversity’s contribution to sustainable development;

(b) Increasing awareness on the importance of conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and of the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources for sustainable development, including improving sustainable livelihoods and poverty eradication efforts and its overall contribution to global and/or national sustainable development strategies;

(c) Raising awareness among all sectors and actors of the need for urgent action to implement the framework, while enabling their active engagement in the implementation and monitoring of progress towards the achievement of its goals and targets;

(d) Facilitating understanding of the framework, including by targeted communication, adapting the language used, level of complexity and thematic content to relevant groups of actors, considering their socioeconomic and cultural context, including by developing material that can be translated into indigenous and local languages;

(e) Promoting or developing platforms, partnerships and action agendas, including with media, civil society and educational institutions, including academia, to share information on successes, lessons learned and experiences and to allow for adaptive learning and participation in acting for biodiversity;

(f) Integrating transformative education on biodiversity into formal, non-formal and informal educational programmes, promoting curriculum on biodiversity conservation and sustainable use in educational institutions and promoting knowledge, attitudes, values, behaviours and lifestyles that are consistent with living in harmony with nature;

(g) Raising awareness on the critical role of science, technology and innovation to strengthen scientific and technical capacities to monitor biodiversity, address knowledge gaps and develop innovative solutions to improve the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity.

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Notes:

(1) study identified that at least 44% of Earth’s land area—some 64 million square kilometers (24.7 million square miles) requires conservation to safeguard biodiversity. See:  James R. Allan et al, The minimum land area requiring conservation attention to safeguard biodiversity, Science (2022). DOI: 10.1126/science.abl9127 https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.abl9127

(2) Dinerstein et al (2020) “Global Safety Net” to reverse biodiversity loss and stabilize Earth’s climate, Science Advances,  4 Sep 2020, Vol 6, Issue 36, DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abb2824 https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/sciadv.abb2824
“We identify 50% of the terrestrial realm that, if conserved, would reverse further biodiversity loss, prevent CO2 emissions from land conversion, and enhance natural carbon removal. This framework shows that, beyond the 15.1% land area currently protected, 35.3% of land area is needed to conserve additional sites of particular importance for biodiversity and stabilize the climate.”

(3)  IPBES (2019): Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services. E. S. Brondizio, J. Settele, S. Díaz, and H. T. Ngo (editors). IPBES secretariat, Bonn. 1,148 pages. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3831673.

(4) Ibid, p. XV-XVI

(5) Ibid, p. XIV

(6)

(7) In this framework, free, prior and informed consent refers to the tripartite terminology of “prior and informed consent” or “free, prior and informed consent” or “approval and involvement

(8) UN General Assembly Resolution 76/300 of 28 July 2022.

(9) Rio Declaration on Environment and Development (A/CONF.151/26/Rev.l (vol.I)), United Nations publication, Sales No. E.93.1.8.

(10) Decision V/6

(11) Decision 15/- on Planning, monitoring, reporting and review

Background:

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