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COP27 diary (November 17): Details on loss and damage facility, phasing out coal missing from ‘Cover Decision’ draft

The 27th Conference of Parties (COP27) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt, began November 7, 2022. Here’s a look at what happened on day 11 of COP27 climate talks.

The COP 27 Presidency produced a non-paper to develop text for a Cover Decision November 17. The non-paper has references to equity and the phase-down of unabated coal power. 


Read more: Double standards on fossil fuel, backtracking on pledges: BASIC fires shots at wealthy countries at COP27


It, however, does not have extensive details on the loss and damage facility demanded by the Group of 77 or the need to phase out fossil fuel use. 

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The draft text on the mitigation work programme (MWP) was produced, but disagreements persist in the form of bracketed text. 

Options are provided on whether the MWP should be non-prescriptive, whether its timeline should be two years or till 2030 and whether or not developing countries should undertake enhanced mitigation efforts. 

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Draft text produced on the loss and damage finance agenda item fails to capture the one concrete demand from the G77 — a loss and damage finance facility under the UNFCCC. 

It also brings in the language of “particularly vulnerable” to sow divisions among developing countries and shift attention to the most vulnerable rather than direct funding to all developing countries in need. 

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A draft text on Article 6.2 was released early November 18. According to it, Parties are allowed to keep information on carbon credits confidential as long as they can justify it. 

The draft text also invited parties to contribute to the trust fund to support work operationalisation under this decision’s mandates. 

Article 6.2 allows countries to trade greenhouse gas emission outcomes. A country that has earned credits by reducing greenhouse gas emissions can sell them to another country to help it meet its climate targets. 

It is being looked at as a tool to help nations meet their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC). 

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A draft text on Article 6.4, a carbon market under the United Nations, was released November 17, 2022. In the early days of CoP27, carbon removals — where carbon is taken out of the atmosphere — were recommended under Article 6.4 – a move that civil society groups have criticised. 


Read more: COP27: Experts flag proposals to include carbon removals in UN trading mechanism


The draft text said there would be discussions with parties and observers on removals. It has also asked the supervisory body — which frames these recommendations — to consider the views of Parties and observers in elaborating and further develop recommendations on activities involving removals.

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In a new draft text on the Glasgow Sharm El-Sheikh Work Programme (GlaSS) on the Global Goal on Adaptation (GGA), parties decided to initiate the development of a framework for GGA that would have a structured approach and will be considered and adopted in 2023. 

It was also decided that the framework will have two functions — enhancing action and support for achieving the GGA and reviewing progress on GGA as part of the global stocktake (GST) in 2023. 

The Parties also decided on four steps of an iterative adaptation cycle under the structured approach: Risk and impact assessment; planning; implementation; and monitoring, evaluation and learning. 

Parties further decided on the various elements, approaches and sources of information to be considered under the structured approach. The framework would be reviewed before the GST. 

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The immediate establishment of a loss and damage finance facilitywas called for by minister from the G77 plus China, Association of Small Island States (AOSIS), Least Developed Countries (LDCs) and Independent Association of Latin American and Caribbean countries (AILAC) at a press meet. 

They wanted the developed countries not to feel cornered and politically agree on establishing a loss and damage finance facility, the details of which, including various funding options, can be discussed subsequently. 

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A proposal that would see the European Union agree to establish a loss and damage fund at COP27 with clear conditions was announced by Frans Timmermans, the executive vice president of the EU, at a late-night informal stocktake plenary event. 

Timmermans had hinted at the same during a press conference earlier in the day. 


Read more: Five big disagreements on loss and damage as COP27 clock ticks on


The fund would be targeted to support the countries most vulnerable to climate change impacts with a broad financial donor base. There would be a mosaic of financial solutions that would include the reform of multilateral development banks as part of the fund. 

The EU wants countries to be more ambitious in bringing down greenhouse gas emissions along with this as a package deal. This would include stronger provisions on updated NDCs in line with the 1.5-degree Paris Agreement target. 

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The creation of a loss and damage funding facility at this COP was stressed up by Nabeel Munir, the ambassador of Pakistan to South Korea and lead negotiator for the G77 and China group at a press Climate Action Network Press briefing. 

“Modalities and operationalisation can be done later,” he added. Loss and damage is not a charity, but climate justice, he highlighted, adding that this COP will be unsuccessful if such a facility is not established.

There are varying degrees of resistance toward setting up a funding facility. Within Europe, Germany is interested in promoting Global Shield, said Harjeet Singh, head-global political strategy, Climate Action Network (CAN). 

Ireland is listening. Denmark is an early mover but has not yet agreed to the idea of funding, while Sweden and France are not yet open. The United States is warming up to the idea but has not yet reached a point where they are open to establishing a facility at this COP, he added.

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The Global Methane Pledge, which was established last year in Glasgow, now has 150 countries as members. The pledge aims to cut methane emissions by 30 per cent by 2030 compared to 2020 levels, said US Special Presidential Envoy for Climate John Kerry. 

This could reduce global temperatures by 0.2 degrees Celsius between 2040 and 2070. About 95 per cent of the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) now include methane or will include it with revision. 

As many as 50 countries have developed national methane action plans, he added. “We challenge every country to return to COP28 with a national methane action plan, methane in their NDC and reduction projects underway,” he stated. 

China and India have not joined the pledge. Methane levels in the atmosphere reached a record high in 2021. But the silver lining is that methane is the cheapest and fastest way to slow down global warming in the years ahead, said Timmermans.


Read more: COP27 enters loss and damage alley; finance facility issue to make or break it


CoP27 President Sameh Shoukry called for the need to provide technical and financial support to developing countries willing to reduce their methane emissions. Egypt has joined the pledge. 

China is not a part of the pledge but has developed a draft action plan, which is going through legislative processes, said the country’s Special Envoy for Climate Change Xie Zhenhua. China needs cooperation to better exchange experiences and best practices and develop capacity, including technology, he added.  

Canada announced that it was providing four million dollars to help Small Island Developing States in the Caribbean and Guyana to reduce methane emissions and help them achieve their Paris Agreement targets.

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